(KTLA) – Michigan is home to the most educated city in the nation, while cities in California and Texas dominated the list of the 10 least educated, according to a ranking released this week by WalletHub.

The personal finance website graded 150 metropolitan areas on factors including the percentage of adults with a high school diploma, college experience or higher education degrees. It also examined the quality of public schools and universities and looked at gender and racial gaps.

Ann Arbor, Michigan, was ranked as the most educated city in the U.S., followed by San Jose, California; Washington, D.C.; San Francisco and Madison, Wisconsin.

It was a good showing for the Golden State – until you look at the bottom of the list.

Five California cities were ranked among the 10 least educated cities, according to WalletHub.

The agricultural communities of Visalia (150), Bakersfield (147), Modesto (146), Stockton (145), and Salinas (141) all received poor marks.

Texas had four of the bottom 10: Corpus Christi (142), Beaumont-Port Arthur (143), McAllen-Edinburg-Mission (148), and Brownsville-Harlingen (149). When it comes to the most educated Texas metro, WalletHub ranked Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown in 10th place.

WalletHub’s experts also noted that school test scores dropped during the COVID-19 pandemic, which only expanded the gap between low-poverty and high-poverty districts. Student absenteeism was also a factor.

“Nearly a third of California public school students were found to be chronically absent [in the 2021-2022 school year] compared to only 14% before the pandemic,” said Joydeep Roy, a visiting professor of economics and education at Columbia University.

Most Educated Cities

RankMetro AreaTotal ScoreEducational AttainmentQuality of Education & Attainment Gap
1Ann Arbor, MI94.7111
2San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA83.1243
3Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV82.25222
4San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley, CA80.77514
5Madison, WI80.59354
6Durham-Chapel Hill, NC78.9484
7Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH78.81741
8Raleigh-Cary, NC78.40637
9Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA76.091012
10Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown, TX75.98126
WalletHub’s 2023’s Most & Least Educated Cities in America

Least Educated Cities

RankMetro AreaTotal ScoreEducational AttainmentQuality of Education & Attainment Gap
141Salinas, CA28.66141115
142Corpus Christi, TX28.35140141
143Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX28.0314485
144Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC27.66142126
145Stockton, CA24.7114598
146Modesto, CA19.57146144
147Bakersfield, CA17.69147123
148McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX14.161508
149Brownsville-Harlingen, TX11.21149107
150Visalia, CA8.28148149
WalletHub’s 2023’s Most & Least Educated Cities in America

Another WalletHub expert, sociology professor Molly Martin with Pennsylvania State University, explains some of the reasons why cities should invest in education and try to attract educated people.

“Highly educated people increase labor force productivity, and they invest heavily in the next generation,” Martin says. “Because they see the fruits of their knowledge and skills, highly educated people typically view education as the golden ticket for children’s success.”